The universe was borne with an inherent asymmetry that allowed matter to be dominant. Our best bet is to study the tiny temperature fluctuations. The essence of life as we know it was produced in the first three minutes after the beginning of the universe. A theory of the early universe has become so widely accepted It is presumed that the universe is filled with a background of those neutrinos now in addition to the 3K microwave background of electromagnetic radiation.
Professor Silk’s studies of galaxy formation and his work on the dynamics of mass loss and the feedback mechanisms from star formation and evolution formed a highly significant basis for subsequent work in this important field. Modern technology has revolutionized the power of telescopes to probe the past. Some, led by Lemaitre, opted for the cosmological constant and the possibility of a prolonged stationary phase in the past to prolong the age of the universe. Fast forward to twentieth century modern cosmology, and views about the earliest instants of the universe are most coherently expressed by the father of the Big Bang, Monsignor Georges Lemaitre.
After allowing for the relatively small contribution from stars, the helium abundance is the same wherever we look. At a temperature of 5 Kelvin, the radiation should predominantly be microwave radiation. It also analyses reviews to verify trustworthiness. He argued that scientific discussions of what might have happened before time zero were a matter of metaphysics or even philosophy. Unification of the electromagnetic and nuclear forces occurs at about ten thousand TeV.
So the only way to arrive at a carbon nucleus of mass 12 is by a 3-way encounter, which simply is rare and takes time. This occurs at an instant of a trillionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second after the beginning, known as the Planck time. It was produced long before any stars had formed.
Gamow’s graduate student, Ralph Alpher, predicted the temperature of the universe today to be about 5 degrees Kelvin. Our universe has been growing for nearly 14 billion years. The first three minutes after the Big Bang is a time period worth of a whole book (indeed, such has been written). It is important because it was during this very short time period that all the hydrogen and most of the helium in the Universe today was formed. Six Not-so-Easy Pieces: Einstein's Relativity, Symmetry, and Space-Time, Physics of the Impossible: A Scientific Exploration of the World of Phasers, Force Fields, Teleportation and Time Travel, Quantum: Einstein, Bohr and the Great Debate About the Nature of Reality, Feynman's Tips on Physics: How to Tackle Physics' Toughest Problems, from the Feynman Lectures on Physics and Everywhere Else.
it appeared to me that there were two paths to truth, and I decided to follow both of them.
But the universe was expanding rapidly. It is important because it was during this very short time period that all the hydrogen and most of the helium in the Universe today was formed.
Cosmologist Richard Chase Tolman had nearly two decades earlier predicted that the fossil radiation from the early universe should be blackbody radiation, from a perfect furnace. And whatever was left behind would consist in equal parts of matter and antimatter. This is the scale of grand unification, or a theory known loosely as GUT. But at the time of creation there could have been no past, because there was nothing created to provide the change and movement which is the condition of time. A year later, Eddington had Lemaitre’s paper translated from French, and Lemaitre became well known as the discoverer, along with the Russian Alexander Friedmann, of the expanding universe cosmology. With our most powerful particle accelerators, we can smash protons together at energies of hundreds or thousands of times their rest mass energy. Others, including Hubble himself, denied the reality of the expansion, and preferred to think in terms of “tired light” or other, unspecified, physics that might simulate the observed Doppler shifts. Clearly the universe must be older, but this was not the case with the age inferred from Hubble’s measurement of the recession of the galaxies.
Hubble was to re-derive this result two years later, unaware of Lemaitre’s pioneering work. The genius of George Gamow was to realize, in the late 1940s, that here was the ideal furnace where helium may have been synthesized. The net result is the formation of helium, whose nucleus contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons. And the heavier elements, of which there are traces in your body, formed in the fiery furnaces of supernovas! The First Three Minutes of Creation. It is a sobering thought that every atom in your body can be traced back (in theory anyway) to the Big Bang, and the nitrogen and oxygen you breathe, the carbon your body is composed of all came from some ancient star. Primeval fireball becomes transparent to neutrinos, so they are released. He conducted important early work on homogeneities in the cosmic microwave background and how they are influenced by density fluctuations in the matter of the early universe, in particular by a damping effect that has become known as “Silk damping”. So this demonstrates the principle of inflation but doesn’t do much more. It this mass difference that is converted into energy via Einstein’s equation E=mc2.
Its all theory of course.
What inflation tells us is that there should be deviation but it could be anything. By this, I mean the stuff that we and the Earth are made of, particles of matter that we call baryons. Gravity only is unified at an energy one thousand times higher, the Planck scale. No wonder the late Carl Sagan was fond of saying that we are all "star stuff. Gamow and his colleagues failed to make this connection.
It was first discovered not on the earth where it is rare but in the sun. And these are fairly generic to all inflationary models. First there is their distribution of strengths on different scales. Indeed, much earlier, there were no protons or neutrons, just their constituents, quarks. At a second, the Big Bang consisted of protons, electrons, positrons and neutrons in a sea of photons and neutrinos. These are the two most abundant elements in the Universe, and are the basic materials from which the first galaxies and stars formed.
By this, I mean the stuff that we and the Earth are made of, particles of matter that we call baryons. The Big Bang was now unchallengeable.
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