[ back ] 1. In Sophocles’ Ajax, by contrast, the circumstances of Teucer’s illegitimate status are used in insults and taunts. [ back ] 24. Teucer is also covered when he is injured (I liad 8.330–331), so that he may retreat, just as other warriors are when injured or killed (Eurypylos by the shield of Ajax at 11.592–594, Hypsenor by the shields of the Achaeans in general at 13.420, and Patroklos by Ajax’s shield at 17.132 as well as those of all the Achaeans at 17.267, 17.354). The pain that Ajax felt, that Teucer as his alter ego or other half would be expected to feel with him, he says that he feels because he did not die with him. [ back ] 76. It was Teucer’s courage and exceptional marksmanship that earned him his place among the Homeridae. [ back ] 19. Teucer then joined King Belus II in his campaign against Cyprus and founded the city of Salamis, naming it after his former homelands. Εάν ρυθμίσετε τον browser σας ώστε να μπλοκάρει τη χρήση αυτών των cookies, ορισμένα τμήματα του ιστότοπου δεν θα λειτουργούν. The bT scholia try to explain the incongruity by saying that Agamemnon is in some way praising Teucer in that he was raised to be a good man even though he was illegitimate. Compare Odysseus hearing the story of his role in Troy through the songs of Demodokos in O dyssey 8 as a confrontation with his Trojan narrative. 68.6 cm (27 in.) In chapter 4, the theme of deception as related to illegitimacy will be further developed. Silting of the city harbour led to a gradual decline in the population that was largely dependant on trade.  Whether or not Helen and Menelaos achieve the same sort of legitimacy when they actually leave Egypt is a larger question complicated by Euripides’ ending. He is neversweetly smiling even when times are good.What will he conceal?  The subject then continues to Helen’s personal shame. H. 203.2 cm (80 in. [ back ] 8. Teucer’s status as nothos needs no explicit mention in the Helen—it is a fact that can be taken for granted. TEUCER, half-brother of AJAX MENELAUS AGAMEMNON Mute Persons EURYSACES, child of AJAX and TECMESSA Attendants, Heralds, etc. Ajax first calls for Teucer when he comes out of his madness, and his question “Where is Teucer?” (ποῦ Τεῦκρος; 342) is picked up twice more by Tecmessa (797 and 921). Teucer (Ancient Greek: Τεύκρος, Teukros). Εάν δεν δεχθείτε αυτά τα cookies, μπορεί να επηρεαστεί η λειτουργικότητα του ιστότοπου. [ back ] 32. As Bernard Williams explains, “The basic experience connected with shame is that of being seen, inappropriately, by the wrong people, in the wrong condition.”  The vivid detail of Helen being dragged off by her hair (ἐπισπάσας κόμης) with Achaean soldiers looking on certainly fits this definition of being seen inappropriately.
For two examples of the latter, see the black-figure kylix of the Lysippides painter (Munich 2080) and a red-figure amphora of the Andocides painter (Berlin F 2159). Ormand 1999.105 points out that “every major hero in the drama (except Ajax) has his birth called into question at some point.” I will argue below that Ajax nevertheless also feels that he must prove his descent from his heroic father through his actions. [ back ] 57. Yet Teucer’s imagined confrontation with his father seems to imply that Teucer was just as responsible for his brother’s life as Ajax was for his. Teucer reminds Helen in the next line (110) that Achaeans died for her as well, perhaps implying which side she should feel sorry for.
The stated purpose of Teucer’s visit to Egypt also points to another important theme of the drama, that of death and rebirth, and his journey suggests the possibility of redemption from this shame.
In Plato’s Timaeus, Egypt is represented as a place of knowledge, specifically knowledge of history. Compare the assertion of the chorus in Euripides H erakles that Herakles’ heroic deeds prove that he is truly Zeus’s son (798–808), although the heroism of Herakles will be undercut soon after this when he murders his family. As Charles Segal describes it in his discussion of the setting for the characters of Helen and Menelaos, “Like the Odyssean Phaeacia, Egypt is a mysterious point of transition between worlds, a point where the past can be relived and in some sense transformed.”  Teucer, like Helen and Menelaos, is making a transition between worlds and rewriting his past. He argues that although archers on archaic vases are marked as noncitizens, they are not depicted as “pre-citizens.” But see Pinney 1983 for her argument that the Scythian archer marks the scene as belonging to epic narrative. In fact, it is Teucer who faces the hatred and the weapons of the Greek army firsthand. Helen asks Teucer whether the Greeks recovered “the Spartan woman,” and when he replies that Menelaos led her off dragging her by the hair, Helen asks whether Teucer actually saw the wretched woman or if he is speaking by report (115–117). Karsai 1992.217 notes that in the previous discussions of Teucer’s role in this drama, the emphasis has been on his role as an informer. [ back ] 48. His journey out of Egypt is the first “rebirth” in the drama, a movement from dishonor to a new life of legitimacy. It might be argued that it is “natural” for Teucer to take on a protective role of Ajax’s philoi once Ajax is dead, but this shift of attributes to Teucer goes beyond his taking charge of the burial of his brother and the protection of Eurysakes (which Ajax himself asked that he do, 565–573). Camulodunum – The First Capital of Britannia, African Crocodiles Lived in Spain Six Million Years Ago, Ancient Maya Built Sophisticated Water Filters, Cognitive Elements of Language Have Existed for 40 Million Years, Bronze Age Herders Were Less Mobile Than Previously Thought, The Secret Hellfire Club and the Hellfire Caves. Bastard, born from my war spear, who betrayed because of cowardice and unmanliness you, dearest Ajax!
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